Comprehensive control method of edible fungi and insect pests - 2019-05-11 17:27:00
From the production of culture medium, the development and growth of fungus species to mushroom body, the production of edible fungus is extremely vulnerable to diseases and insect pests in the whole production process.
Therefore, the prevention and control of edible fungi should start from each link, check everywhere, effectively control the occurrence of diseases and insect pests and the degree of harm, and ensure the normal growth of mycelium and safe fruiting.
Below xiaobian take you to understand the integrated pest control methods of edible fungi, I hope to help you.
Ecological regulation and control:
1. Wood rot fungus and grass rot fungus are suitable for seed production and planting in separate places: both seed production and cultivation of grass rot fungus species require fermentation of the medium.In the fermentation process, a large number of pathogenic bacteria, mosquitoes and flies and pests proliferate, and wood rot fungi are also in the germination stage of seed production. In the same environment, diseases and insect pests also cross infection, which is easy to cause pollution in the production of wood rot fungi.Fleas and flies, for example, can easily invade pleurotus edodes' follicle to lay eggs and reproduce, while repeated invasions in the genital cavity are difficult to eradicate.Only by separating the site and producing the seeds separately can we keep the breeding ground and cultivation ground clean and hygienic.
2. Stubble changing, crop rotation and cutting off food sources of diseases and insect pests: for cultivation farms with serious diseases and insect pests, it is not suitable to continue planting edible fungi of the same variety to prevent the occurrence of diseases and insect pests at the same time, which is difficult to control.For example, growing clonomycetes on a bed of chicken leg mushrooms in the spring, and growing mushrooms that are unsuitable for clonomycetes in the fall would cut off the food source of the pathogen and eliminate the chance of recurrence fundamentally.
3. Select varieties with strong resistance to diseases and insect pests and cultivate strains with high activity and purity: strong resistance is the genetic advantage of strains, and the activity and purity of strains are determined by the technology and conditions of suppliers.In order to eliminate or reduce the chance of infection of diseases and insect pests, the cultivator should select the suitable strains for the production under the temperature of fruiting season, so as to realize safe germination and smooth fruiting.
4. Keep the environment clean and dry: an important measure to improve the yield of bacterial species is to keep the whole bacterial species production site clean, dry, non-polluting bags, no water, unobstructed drainage, clean air and water.This reduces the amount of bacteria in the air and reduces the chance of infection during inoculation and germination.
5. Sowing and fruiting at the same time of the same variety in the same mushroom house: the same kind of mushroom house is cultivated at the same time and the same kind of mushroom is sown at the same time, which is convenient for management and can effectively control the occurrence of diseases and insect pests.Under the condition of normal fruiting, reducing the humidity in the mushroom chamber and increasing the ventilation can help to control the living conditions of pathogens and reduce the chance of disease occurrence.After harvesting, remove residual mushrooms, cut roots, remove contaminated bags of bacteria, and keep the chamber clean. This can greatly reduce the risk of disease and insect reproduction.
1. Strengthen the substrate sterilization or disinfection, ensure curing aseptic bag: atmospheric pressure sterilization standard is 100 c c 8 to 10 hours, high pressure sterilization standard is 121 ℃ c lasts 2.5-3 hours, which can effectively kill the matrix of all microorganisms and spores.The use of the bag should be strong, no microporous, sealed tightly.The bags should be carefully handled to prevent breakage.These are important measures to reduce pollution.
2. Standardizing inoculation procedures and strict aseptic operation: the production of bacterial strains should be carried out according to aseptic operation procedures, with grading inspection and strict control, so as to produce strains with high purity and strong vitality.The sterilization furnace shall be set at the bag mouth and bag mouth respectively with the middle partition.The exit of the cloth bag is connected to the inoculation room, which is cooled on a clean table for inoculation.
Operators should wear good work clothes to ensure a high degree of sterility in the vaccination room.
3. Safe germination to prevent the invasion of bacteria and pests into the bag: the chamber should be kept at a constant temperature, the temperature should be controlled at 20 ~ 26 degrees Celsius.
Prevent the temperature difference is too large to cause the moisture inside the bacteria bag, leading to the invasion of bacteria and pollution.At the same time, shading cultivation was carried out to reduce the harm of adult flies flying to the spawning ground.
1. Attach importance to the treatment of medium agents: due to the long-term production of bacterial species and cultivation bags in large cultivation farms, the concentration of bacteria in the air of general farms is higher and there are more pollution channels.Therefore, it is necessary to add microfungicides in the culture medium to effectively inhibit the germination and development of competitive bacteria and improve the product of the pouch.
2. Pretreatment of covering materials: the soil can retain and absorb water, stimulating the formation of mushroom bodies, but the soil is also the habitat for many pathogens and insect eggs and pupae.
Therefore, physical and chemical agents must be used for disinfection and insecticidal treatment before use.Grass rot fungi should cover soil materials to promote the utilization of river mud and soil.
Under anaerobic conditions, the sludge has fewer aerobic pathogens and better moisture retention.
After covering the mushroom with soil, the mushroom can be kept at a certain humidity for 2-3 days without watering.For dry soil and paddy soil materials, spray 5% lime and expose to the sun for a few days.Meanwhile, spray 800 times of mushroom abundance and 1, 000 times of mushroom net 5 to 7 days before use, cover with thin film after building a pile and cover for 5 days, and then move into the mushroom house for use.
3. Focus on disinfection before covering bagging: pretreatment before bagging and pretreatment before covering should be carried out in the active period of diseases and insect pests in the high temperature season.For example, after the mycelium is filled and before covering the soil, spray a large number of clean mushrooms on the mycelium bed 1000 times, which can effectively kill the larvae and fungi in the mycelium.After opening the bag, spray the mushroom net in the mouth and around the bag 1000 times to prevent the harm of mushroom mosquitoes, fleas and flies to lay eggs and ensure the safety of the first tide mushroom.
4. Do a good job in the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests during the interval of fruiting: when the diseases and insect pests are harmful during the interval of fruiting, the mushroom should be treated with chemicals in time after harvesting.
5. Clean and disinfect the mushroom houses: after the production cycle, the mushroom houses should be thoroughly cleaned and swabbed, fumigated with formaldehyde and dichlorvos, and open doors and Windows for ventilation and dehumidification.The planting ground cannot be used continuously.It needs to sit idle for more than half a month before the next round of production begins.