Oyster mushroom fruiting management - 2019-06-03 19:31:09
Hairy period management. From the sowing of the cover film to the period of germination, it is the vegetative growth stage. The purpose of management is to make the hyphae as fast as possible, and to grow the material early, so as not to contaminate the bacteria. The management task of the autumn season is to moisturize, prevent high temperature burning bacteria, combine inspection of pests and diseases, ventilation and ventilation.
After the bed cover is covered with the film straw, the hyphae are quickly planted, stretched and developed deep into the material. Generally, 7-10 days after sowing, the film should be uncovered to check the occurrence of pests and diseases, and the growth and development progress of the strains, combined with ventilation and ventilation. After about 20 days, the hyphae has been covered and checked again. If you find any pests and diseases, you should find out the reasons and take targeted measures. It is found that there are bacteria of different colors, and it is necessary to distinguish whether the bacteria grow from the material to the material or from the inside to the outside of the material. If the contamination of the surface is not deep, use 3% formaldehyde or 5% carbolic acid to wipe off the bacteria, or use lime to cover the bacteria (the closure area must be larger than the disease area). Inhibit the purpose of the expansion of bacteria. There is no obvious effect on the mushroom. If the bacteria expands from the inside of the material, the general quantity is relatively harmful and the treatment is difficult. Most of the bacteria are caused by the raw materials, which should be paid attention to. The ward can be watered with 0.6-0.8% carbendazim solution or 0.1% potassium permanganate solution to inhibit the expansion of the bacteria. Or a part of the bacteria will be digging with a disinfected tool, and then add new materials. When excavating bacteria, strictly observe the prevention of re-diffusion and other culture materials. If the hyphae are not found, it is due to the high temperature effect, and the grass curtain should be thickened to prevent high temperature. If the exhaust gas seriously affects the bacteria, it is necessary to ventilate and remove the exhaust gas in time. Replanting should be timely.
Generally, after 20 days of sowing the cover of the mycelium, the chance of infection of the bacteria is less. At this time, under normal conditions, it is not necessary to uncover the film for ventilation or watering. Because Pleurotus ostreatus can tolerate high humidity and carbon dioxide concentrations, this feature can be fully utilized to prevent other microbial invasion hazards. Some managers are afraid that the high concentration of carbon dioxide is harmful to the hyphae. Every day, the sea smear is ventilated 1-2 times, and the contamination of the bacteria is serious and the loss is great. Therefore, when the masses summed up their experience, they said: "Plastic mushroom production, "lazy" in the management of mycelial growth is a little better than "diligence" and has certain practical significance. But it should also be managed according to the actual situation.
Pests are sometimes found in the material during the period of hair growth, and the common ones are mites and bacillary dysentery. Their common feature is that they breed fast, endanger the mycelium, and affect the yield. If not removed in time, it is easy to cause production. It is necessary to find out whether it occurs locally or all, usually more locally. It can be trapped with 1% sweet and sour solution, sprayed sweet and sour water on the film or gauze, and covered with sugar vinegar water in the insect area. The bacteria and bacteria will be concentrated on the film. Remove it from burning or immerse it in liquid medicine. Or use gauze to soak the sugar vinegar, spread on the gauze of the insect area and then mix the sugar with the wheat gluten to trap the pests. The practical effect is better. In the production of edible fungi, it should be noted that pesticides cannot be used at will, because the growth time of edible fungi is short, the growth rate is fast, and the pesticides are easily transferred into the fruiting bodies, causing harm to humans.
1 set up a film. When the mycelium is sent to the bottom of the material, the mycelium bundle has been formed in the bottom material, and when the hyphae spit out the yellow water droplets, the mycelium is mature and the fruit body is formed soon. At this time, it is necessary to increase the scattered light and prolong the illumination time. In particular, the human defense tunnel should increase the illumination time and the intensity of the illumination, and use light to stimulate the occurrence of the fruiting body. In the management, the temperature difference between day and night is increased, and a high moist environment is maintained, and the fruiting bodies are formed very quickly. When more than 60% of the bed surface has small mushroom buds, the film can be set up and transferred to the mushroom management. If there are a small amount of mushroom buds on the bed surface or if the mushrooms are not seen, the film will be set up too early. Although the mushrooms can be taken out early, the mushrooms are not uniform and affect the yield.
2 fruiting body development stage. Pleurotus ostreatus fruit body growth and development, generally through the mulberry period (primary base period), coral period, young mushroom stage, pre-mature stage, mature stage, late stage of maturity. Pleurotus ostreatus is a primordial multiple fungus, but the conversion rate from the primordium to the mushroom is not high, generally less than 30%. Therefore, how to improve the rate of mushroom formation is a new topic for us to cultivate management techniques, and we need to study and explore together.
3 increase the rate of mushroom formation. The key to high-yield management of Pleurotus ostreatus is how to increase the rate of mushroom formation. The most critical period is the transformation of the coral period into the young mushroom stage, because the oyster mushroom occurs in a large number in the mulberry period, and there are still more transitions from the mulberry period to the coral period, but the ratio is really low from the coral to the young mushroom. Therefore, this period is well managed, and the proportion of mushrooms developed is high, when the yield of the mushroom is high. The coral polarization is most obvious. The well-developed coral-like apex expands and develops into a cap. The coral-like lower part is thick and becomes a stipe. When entering the young mushroom stage, the color changes from white to dark gray. Poor development. Due to insufficient nutrients and various other reasons, the atrophy died or disappeared. Therefore, our management measures during this period are to maintain a stable humid environment, increase the temperature difference between day and night, increase the scattered light, increase ventilation, etc., and promote its transformation into young mushrooms. In the production should pay attention to the following points: the mushroom is forbidden to spray water before, especially when it is coral-like, it will affect the absorption of nutrients due to excessive humidity, easy to edema, yellow, soft and die high temperature, except for high temperature varieties In addition, the general fruiting body can not withstand the high temperature above 23 °C, and it will die. Avoid drying, because dry and easy to lose water is not conducive to nutrient conversion. Do not blow the wind, the wind blowing will make the growth of the mushroom cover on the edge of the mushroom cover too much water, easy to shrink and die.
Prevent pesticides from being touched, because the young mushrooms have strong respiratory effects and are prone to pesticide poisoning. In particular, oyster mushrooms are particularly sensitive to dichlorvos, so pay special attention. Strictly prevent direct light exposure, easy to burn the cover, affecting growth. In the coral period and the management of the young mushroom period, the above six aspects are emphasized, and the yield can be significantly improved.
4 reasonable water use. With the growth and development of the young mushroom, the color turns dark gray, the cap has reached more than 1 cm, and the water content of the fruiting body has increased significantly during the expansion period. At this time, the water spray volume should be increased appropriately, the ventilation volume should be increased, the metabolism should be promoted, and the metabolism should be accelerated. Growing. Before the mature mushroom is mature, the key management measures are water spray, ventilation and high temperature protection. The water spray should master the principle of diligence, fineness, lightness and uniformity, and maintain the relative humidity of the air at 85-95%. If the air humidity is too low, below 70%, the formed young mushrooms will also die or stop growing. If the relative humidity of the air is higher than 95%, and then encounter high temperature, the mushroom cover is easy to produce small mushroom buds, affecting the quality, and extremely perishable, causing other diseases. It is necessary to properly handle the relationship between moisturizing, heat preservation, ventilation and ventilation.
How to use good water in the management of mushroom period, and promote the growth of mushroom growth by promoting the combination of control, is a very important measure to capture high yield. When the first mushroom is harvested, let the surface dry for 4-5 days, and then spray a heavy water to make the water content of the culture material reach about 68%. Cover the film, keep it moist, and destroy the bud. When the obvious fruiting bodies are generally visible, the film is set up and transferred to the mushroom management. In this way, dry and wet, stop and stop alternately pipe water method, control and promote, is conducive to stimulate the formation of fruiting bodies in batches, concentrated mushroom production, easy management, easy to obtain high yield. When each mushroom is harvested, cut it and keep it small, and strive for the mushroom to grow up. When the mushroom bed is still 20-15% mushroom, the size mushroom is completely lighted at one time, which is beneficial to the neatly tidy mushroom, and the management is labor-saving. At the same time, it can prevent spores from the same age mushroom (old mushroom) from polluting the environment. However, it is forbidden to spray water immediately after harvesting the mushrooms, otherwise it will easily cause yellow, soft and edema death of the mushrooms.
5 Follow the nutrient solution and hormones. In order to promote the length and growth of Pleurotus ostreatus fruit bodies, various local experiments have been carried out to spray various nutrient solutions and hormones. Some of the costs are low, and the yield increase effect is very good and should be promoted.