Temperature control in edible fungi cultivation - 2019-04-29 17:36:41
In the process of growth, edible fungi need to decompose, absorb and use nutrients, which is a complex biochemical process and requires the participation of a variety of enzymes. As a catalyst, enzyme is a special protein. Its activity is restricted by various environmental factors, especially the influence of temperature.Therefore, it is very important to control the temperature at every growth stage of edible fungi in cultivation.
1. "three basic points" of temperature control in different growth stages
In the cultivation of edible fungi, temperature directly affects the process of each growth stage, determines the length of the production cycle and the effect of cultivation, and is also one of the determinants of the quality and yield of edible fungi products.
Different strains of edible fungi have different temperature requirements in different growth stages.
Cultivation to primordium differentiation on the optimum temperature is divided into different type, mushrooms, for example, high temperature strain for 15 to 25 ℃, the temperature strain for 10 to 22 ℃, low temperature strain for 5-18 ℃.
No matter what kind of edible fungi or what strains in different growth stage, should grasp its fertility, optimum temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature is known as temperature control of the "three points", "three points" temperature of the common edible fungi such as mushroom mycelia 6 ℃, minimum temperature 24 ℃ and 33 ℃, highest optimum fruit body growth lowest temperature 8 ℃, the optimal 18 ℃, the highest 20 ℃.
Abalone mushroom mycelia minimum, optimum and high humidity are respectively 10 ℃, 25 ℃, 35 ℃, minimum fruit body growth, the optimum and the maximum temperature 18 ℃, 25 ℃, 32 ℃.
Most of edible fungus hypha growth stages were 0 to 25 + / - 1 ℃ temperature control for good, and fruit body growth stage is different fungi require great differences.
In the actual cultivation, bacteria culture stage generally master 2-3 ℃ lower than the optimum temperature, the temperature of the primordium differentiation generally lower than the fruiting body birth optimum temperature 5-7 ℃.
Should also be talking about is that the temperature is refers to the "product" warm, of fungus bag here and bacteria culture room "room temperature" and the "temperature" under natural climate is different, is the product at room temperature, mild hair early bacteria (15 days) product temperature lower than the room temperature, room temperature should be controlled at the optimum temperature of above, hair mid bacteria (15 to 30 days) due to the hypha growth, send out quantity of heat is tasted more than the room temperature for 2-3 ℃, should control the room temperature is lower than the optimum temperature for 2-3 ℃.
2. the bacteria age problem
Mushroom age refers to the time required for the cultivation bags of edible fungi to reach physiological maturity at the optimum temperature after inoculation and enter the fruiting stage.
This is also a very important problem in cultivation. Without knowing the required age of culture bacteria, it is impossible to master the production season, or even cause failure.
Different edible fungi have different age, even the same kind of bacteria but different varieties or cultivation methods have different age.
For example, lentinus edodes of medium-high temperature and medium-low temperature were planted in the same 15 60cm stick bag, and their fungus ages were 80 days and 120-160 days respectively.
Abalone mushrooms take 60 days and poplar mushrooms 50 days.However, the number of days of culture is only a reference data, and whether the physiological maturity has been reached should be mainly based on the unique characteristics of physiological maturity of various edible fungi.
For example, wood rot fungi such as lentinus edodes and shiitake edodes often grow hyphae under inappropriate temperature, and their nutrient accumulation is insufficient, while substances formed by unfavorable fruiting entities in metabolism accumulate in large quantities, resulting in delayed fruiting or serious rotten tube.
It can also be seen that the effect of temperature on the physiological maturation of mycelia is a very long process, which is not limited to a few days in the culture period.
3. accumulated temperature problem
The sum of the temperatures necessary for a plant (including edible fungi) to complete a growth cycle is called the accumulated temperature.
Domestic accumulated temperature of edible fungi is not much, in the study of foreign countries, such as Japan more seriously, according to their research, generally low temperature log cultivated mushroom varieties, need effective accumulated temperature of 4000-5000 ℃, 3000-4000 ℃ high temperature variety, from a practical point of view, sawdust cultivation xianggu mushroom in our country needs much less accumulated temperature, according to our province high-yield, sawdust bag cultivation xianggu mushroom, from August 25 vaccination in low temperature type 087 strains bacteria culture under the warm to November 2, mushroom, total 68 days, bacteria culture period, the average temperature of 21.3 ℃, the effective accumulated temperature of 1108 ℃.
In the cultivation practice, if the problem of proper temperature culture and temperature accumulation is not paid attention to during the cultivation period, the fungus age will be greatly extended, and the physiological maturity will not be reached, which will affect the fruiting of mushroom. This phenomenon can be found in edible fungi such as tea tree mushroom, abalone mushroom, ostreatus vinifera mushroom, ferula ferula, and enoki mushroom.
In production, the use of natural climate for cultivation, the effective way to control the temperature is to grasp the local climate, species of species, and formulate a scientific seed making, bag making, culture and mushroom season;Those with regulatory facilities can set control and other management measures according to production requirements.
However, temperature is only one of many ecological factors in the life of edible fungi. In practice, edible fungi are influenced by many factors, so it is necessary to master comprehensive ecological conditions and apply them flexibly in order to obtain high quality and yield.